There are data about the existence of Deszk from the 15th century. The village was mentioned in 1490 namely as Dezk in the letter of the king donating all the possessions of Esztáry Bálint – who betrayed him – having in Csanád country including the village of Deszk to Losonczi László. It shows the importance of the village lying south of the river Maros that it is mentioned in 1536 in country papers by Oláh Miklós), in 1514 and was published in 1528 – on the left riverside of the Maros the name of Szőreg (Zeureg) and Deszk (Desk) can be seen below the mark of the extensive forest on both side of the river. Probably, the view of the characteristic and rich vegetation of the especially capriciously twisting lower part of the Maros was that engaged the map maker’s attention. After Deszk, the next places were Zombor (Zombar) and Csanád (Csenadiu) marked with temple or castle. (On the opposite bank is the circle for Makó but it’s name is missing.) Many of the other places don’t appear on later maps. Although, we don’t know much about Deszk’s early history, the existence of the village is proved by the evidence of data about the collection of the Turkish tax from 1552 as the Turkish rule begun. Due to the long Turkish domination and the following destruction of the wars of liberation, this region was considerably depopulated. This village’s history reflected the eventful past of Hungary. It’s landlords often changed each other, it was in documents as a subject of trading, pawning, or further dominations.
The number of the inhabitants continuously decreased, and due to the Turkish wars the village was completely destroyed and fully depopulated in the early 18th century.
1. picture: The angle of the Tisza and Maros with the depopulated villages. The state in 1723-25.
On that map although Deszk (Tesca) occurred with the neighbour villages – Szőreg (Sirick), Zombor (Sombor) – they were listed as depopulated. The map shows that the area was huge, alienated and swampy, that protected and sheltered the inhabitants who knew it well in time of war. The Tisza – Maros angle belonged to the region of Temes Bánság between 1718-1778, later it became part of Torontál County. The military administration was changed to the chamber administration. The previously thriving villages were largely deserted, and their revival only begun in the 1740s with the settling of the members of disbanded frontier-guards from the area of the Tisza and the Maros. In the second half of the century the growing of tobacco, on the Turkish’s intervention, was more and more wide-spread in the country. That needed more manpower which was ensured with the arrival of the new settlers. That led to the formation of the tobacco-growing communities. In a very short time the number of the inhabitants of this area increased so intensively, that Deszk, Szőreg and Szentiván were declared to village in 1746. From 1719 Deszk belonged to the Csanadian district of the Temesi Bánság. The directorate of Temesvár had Serbian frontier-guards settled to Deszk on 29th March 1746.
2. picture The Tisza – Maros angle with the rebuilt villages in 1761.
On the map made in 1761 the development of the area is visible.. The number of the settlements was increased. With small lines, buildings were marked on the area of the previously deserted villages like Szőreg (Szreck) and Deszk (Deska), while Klárafalva (Caraffala), which became village in 1777, was just signed with a small circle on the map. Long-drawn, watered moorland is visible under Deszk in a half circle.
Until 1801 Deszk was directly part of the management of the chamber and the government. At that time, Deszk and the neighbouring village Klárafalva was bought by the family of baron Gerliczy. At the purchase it was noted that the whole additional part of the estate was under water and surveyed from a boat. From 1779 the village with its nearly 1000 inhabitants belonged to the Torontál County’s district of Törökkanizsa. In 1804, an enormous estate was given as a royal donation to Baron Ferenc Gerliczy (1748-1833), that he complemented with some more land purchased. The estate of more than 7111 acres land expanded from Szőreg to Klárafalva and Ferencszállás, too. Slowly the Hungarian workers of the large estate had settled next to the Serbians. The numbers of the inhabitants were 1551 in 1828, 2240 in 1857, and 2944 in 1910 of which 1526 were Serbian and 1361 were Hungarian. In 1830 the village of Ferencszállás was developed from a tobacco – growing colony. On 5th of August in 1849, the day of the Battle of Szőreg, there was a fire where the village, the Orthodox Church and the castle had burned down. In 1859 the contemporary Orthodox Serbian Church, and in 1904 the Catholic Church were built. The new castle was built near the originally place of the old one.
After the First World War, the Serbian occupation lasted until 21st of August 1921. The nine villages of the region remained within Hungary had its centre Kiszombor, as a mangled county, called ‘North-Torontál’ district, functioned till 31st of December 1923. From the 1st of January 1924 until 1945 Deszk belonged to the Torontál district of the administratively united Csanád –Arad – Torontál County. In 1928 the Gerliczy’s estate was divided up, and sold. In that time further Hungarian inhabitants moved to the village mostly from the neighbourhood, sandy area of Szeged. The numbers of the inhabitants were 2761 in 1930. By than only 303 were Serbian because in the 1920s a lot of Serbian people opted, moved to Yugoslavia. The new public school with eight classrooms was built in 1929. The Gerliczy family sold the castle in 1929, and the government established a children’s sanatorium in it. After the Second World War, for a few years the castle building was the orphanage for Jewish children. Later that building functioned as a sanatorium again, being specialized for consumptive/tubercular patients. Today it is the Medical clinic of the University of Szeged University. The village with the development of the council system in 1950 became part of the district of Szeged of Csongrád County. The numbers of the inhabitants were 2861 in 1949. The smaller co-operative groups associated in the Maros agricultural co-operative in 1970. The Taurus Rubber Industrial Company developed its premises in the village in 1975. The numbers of the inhabitants were in the village 2755 in 1990, and among of them 138 declared themself Serbian. The village has a nursery and a school where the education is conducted in Serbian.
After the change of regime in 1990 the free election was held in the village, too. As a result of the election, the first mayor of the village after 1990 was László Czifra. The deputy mayor was László Vörös. The members of the council were: József Bolgár, István Kurunczi, Mrs. György Fehérvári, István Meszes, Dr. Márk Rusz. In 1991 the Association for the Village (Falunkért egyesület) was established with the aim to gather people who want to do something for the village. The Association intend to be the link between the council and the inhabitants of the village, and publishes a monthly paper, the “Deszki Hírnök”. The other very important aim of the Association is to provide mental and practical help in every aspect of the life of the village, and look for contact with some similar association of Hungarian village beyond the border. On March in 1991 were published The first copy of Deszki Hírnök was published in March 1991 and since that time it is published monthly.
In 1994, after the new election a new council was developed with the leadership of the new mayor, József Simicz. The deputy mayor was Aranka Kószó, who was the director of the library of Deszk, too. The members of the council were: Dr. Márk Rusz, Sándor Molnár, Milivoj Gyorgyev, Vojiszláv Gyorgyev, Mrs. Ilona Pósa Földi, Mrs. György Fehérvári, László Király, Illés Szarvas. On the election in 1998 was reelected József Simicz (in 2002 and in 2006, also). The deputy mayor was László Király. The members of council were: Dr. Márk Rusz, Sándor Molnár, Aranka Kószó, Mrs. Ilona Pósa Földi, Milivoj Gyorgyev, Vojiszláv Gyorgyev, József Bánfi, Miklós Szalai, Illés Szarvas, András Borka.
From 2010 the former deputy mayor László Király being elected got the opportunity from the village to continue his predecessor’s work as a mayor. The deputy mayor is: Dr. Ildikó Ledniczky. The six members of the council are: Edit Márta Arany, Krisztifor Brczán, Péter Farkas, Vojiszláv Gyorgyev, Mrs. (Klára Vajas) József Schultz. The Serbian Minority Municipality of Deszk: The president: Krisztifor Brczán, deputy president: Csedomír Adamov, Nevenka Belájszki, Dr. Ljubomir Jancsikin. The Gypsy Minority Municipality of Deszk: The perident: Mrs. Gusztáv Auth, deputy president: László Kolompár, Anikó Meszes, Magdolna Meszes.